A-weighted scale

A scale that is applied to instrument-measured sound levels to replicate the relative loudness perceived by the human ear.


The visual impact a wind farm has on the landscape.

Australian Government

The Government of the Commonwealth of Australia (also referred to as Federal Government).

Australian Wind Alliance (AWA)

A not-for-profit organisation that supports the wind energy industry in Australia, with the objectives of boosting regional economies and reducing pollution and greenhouse emissions.

Clean Energy Council (CEC)

The peak not-for-profit organisation supporting the clean energy industry in Australia. The CEC represents a range of clean energy sectors and works with governments and other organisations to promote the industry.

Community Consultative Committee (CCC)

A CCC is a membership that is set up to facilitate consultation between wind farm developers, the community, local councils and other stakeholders that may be involved in the development phase or operation of a wind farm.

Community Association

A non-government association of participating members of a community who facilitate representative community engagement in the development process.

Community Engagement

The consultative process of wind farm developers supporting the participation of community members in the development process.

Commercial Dispute

An issue regarding the contractual goods or services of a wind farm whereby financial compensation has been sought by a party (for example, a host or a neighbour).


One or more resident(s) from a residence who has contacted the Office for the purpose of making a complaint.

Concerned Resident

A person who resides in a dwelling within proximity to a proposed or operating wind farm facility, who holds concerns about potential impacts of the proposed or operating wind farm and may make a complaint to the Commissioner.


The stage in which the wind farm including access roads is being built. The construction stage may last a number of years.


Decibels, a measurement unit used to describe the level or intensity (loudness) of a sound.


A-weighted decibels, a measurement unit that used to express the relative loudness of sounds in air as perceived by the human ear.


C-weighted decibels, a measurement unit that is used to measure low-frequency noise.


G-weighted decibels, a measurement unit that is used to measure to infrasound.

Economic Loss

The potential negative economic impact that a proposed or developed wind farm may have on a particular community or individuals within a community. This is typically the loss or perceived loss of property values or business within proximity to a proposed or operating wind farm.


A person who has special skill, knowledge or authority in a particular field of study.


General physical or mental condition of a concerned resident.


Hertz, a unit which measures the frequency of sound waves, perceived by the human ear as pitch. The typical range of human hearing is 20‑20,000 Hz.

Industry Association

An organisation founded and funded by businesses and other parties that have an interest in the wind energy industry.

Industry Member

Employee or other party who is involved as a member of an industry association.


Sound that is lower in frequency than 20 Hz or cycles per second, the ‘normal’ limit of human hearing.

Independent Scientific Committee on Wind Turbines

An independent, multidisciplinary, expert group established in 2015 by the then Minister for the Environment, the Hon Greg Hunt. The Committee was primarily established to investigate and provide advice on the potential impacts of sound from wind turbines on health and the environment.


The A-weighted sound pressure level, obtained by using the fast time-weighting, that is equal to or exceeded for 90% of a 10 minute time interval. The values for individual 10 minute time periods are highly variable and a function of the hub height wind speed. The actual value for a particular hub height wind speed is determined by best fitting a polynomial function of hub height wind speed, which can be up to fourth order, to the individual 10 minute time period LA90,10min values when the wind turbines are operating. It is corrected to remove the effect of the background noise by subtracting a background noise function determined in the same way when the wind turbines are not operating.

For example, for a particular hub height wind speed, the LA90,10min function determined as described above must be less than the greater of 35 dB and the background noise function determined as described above plus 5 dB.


The process whereby the specific location of a wind turbine is determined.

National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC)

An independent statutory agency and expert body that promotes the development and maintenance of public and individual health standards. NHMRC provides research funding and development of advice, drawing upon a broad range of resources.

Natural Environment

The land, water, biodiversity, flora and fauna and the naturally occurring ecological processes that may be impacted by the development or operation of a wind farm.


A resident of a property that is within close proximity to wind farm turbine/s, but does not host the turbine.

NZS 6808:1998

A recognised standard in New Zealand introduced in 1998 that provides methods for the prediction, measurement and assessment of sound from wind turbines.

This standard was based on the United Kingdom 1996 Energy Technology Support Unit (ETSU) report The assessment and rating of noise from wind farms (ETSU-R-97, 1996). However the New Zealand standard introduced the L95 measurement used to describe background sound in New Zealand. The standard limit was 40dB, with a ‘background +5 dB’ variable. This standard was used for all wind farms in New Zealand until the introduction of the 2010 standard and was also adopted in Victoria prior to 2010. This standard is now succeeded by NZS 6808:2010.

NZS 6808:2010

A recognised standard in New Zealand introduced in 2010 that provides methods for the prediction, measurement and assessment of sound from wind turbines. This standard succeeded the 1998 version (NZS 6808:1998).

While the 1998 version was introduced prior to significant wind farm development in New Zealand, a number of technical refinements and incremental enhancements were included in the 2010 standard. Notably, the standard also provided for a more stringent ‘high amenity noise limit’ in special local circumstances.


Appointed authority to assist the public by investigating and resolving complaints on a specified issue.

Planning Process

A local, state or Federal Government process to determine whether a proposed project will be approved.

Responsible Authority

The planning authority responsible for the project from a planning/approval/compliance perspective.


The potential for the wind farm to cause danger, risk or injury to residents of a community within proximity to a wind farm. May include issues such as sleep deprivation, fire hazard, or any personal well-being.

Shadow flicker

The shadow cast by the sun over the rotating blades of a wind turbine that results in a rotating shadow affecting neighbouring properties.

Supportive Member

A member of the community that is in favour of a proposed or operating wind farm, including persons who reside in a dwelling within proximity of a proposed or operating wind farm

Terms of Reference

The specifications that outline the scope and limitations of the Office of the Australian Energy Infrastructure Commissioner. See Appendix B.


The oscillatory motion of an object or parts of an object. One of its possible causes is infrasound from a wind turbine.

Wind Farm Maintenance/Operations

Related to the ongoing process of ensuring the upkeep of the wind farm turbines for the life of the project.

Wind Turbine

Device with at least one moving part called a rotor assembly, which is a shaft or drum with blades attached, which is used to convert the wind’s kinetic energy into electrical power.


Further information